Empirical evidence

The linkage between knowledge management practices and company Performance: Empirical evidence, Knowledge management has appeared as one of the most vital part in management practices and founded as a basic resource for companies and economies. As organizations became aware of the power of knowledge as the most valuable strategic resource in the knowledge economy, Knowledge management became widely recognized as essential for the success or failure of organizations. Knowledge management is the process of converting information and intellectual assets into lastingvalue. It unites people with the knowledge that they requireto take action, whilethey need it. From a business viewpoint, knowledge seems to be a mainaspectfor a companysuccess in the long run (Mansell & When, 1998;Stewart, 2001;Tat & Stewart,2007).The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between Knowledge management and company performance, study the importance of Knowledge management as a source of sustainable competitive advantages for companies and to investigate how the introduction of Knowledge management practices facilitates company performance to improve. This link was examined in Pakistan environment, which is at the beginning of recognizing a market-based economy and where most of companies are only beginning to integrate Knowledge managementinto their business philosophy.Empirical evidence, This research shows the result of a survey which was carried out in 52 Pakistani companies. This research identified the Knowledge management practices that potentially affect company performance. Today, the main worldwidepressure on management practices is knowledge recognition, formation, innovation, propagation, and development of talent. The basicsof economic competition have shifted in important ways in recent years because of the forceof globalization, abundanceof information technology, the availability of information and the changing nature of organizational forms. In amarketwhere the only certainty is uncertainty, the one convincedsource of enduringcompetitive advantage is improved knowledge management(Nonaka, 1994).Variousempirical studies focus only on specific characteristicof


Ontology modeling

Ontology modeling for generation of clinical pathways, One of the main challenges in healthcare domain is to increase the treatment quality. In order to achieve this goal, hospitals need to utilize standardized clinical protocols used in many domains of medicine. Such a protocol contains detailed medical plans for diagnosis, therapy scheme and follow-up. Moreover, it encloses the information required so as to deal with exceptional situations, which occur during the treatment execution time and require quick and appropriate modifications of the treatment of a patient, thus increasing the flexibility of the treatment processes. One valuable tool to achieve the above-mentioned objectives is “Clinical Pathways”.Clinical pathway(CP)is developed as a standard way to manage medical activities sincethe 1980’s. CPsare structured multi-disciplinary care plans or medical processes in which diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed for a particular diagnosis are described sequentially(Audimoolam, Nair, Gaikwad & Qing, 2005). However, the application and adaptation of CPin a local hospital setting, inevitably has some limitations of process management in practice. Despite the benefits, there are many instances which show that CPfailsto offer a cleardescription of activities, conditions, sequence and authorities of action of a care process(Carthey, 2010). The conditions and consequences expressed in CPare always bound and there is no capability to handle human discretion. As a result, currentapplication of CPcannot handle situationswhere decisions are made solely on human judgment.Hence, one cannot model dynamics of care activityand alternative proceduresin which decision are made solely based on human judgment (Liu, Sun, Barjis & Dietz, 2003). This issue is mostly related to healthcare settings where processes are complex, less structured and are made up of social agents such as physicians, departments with goals that they actively pursue in constant interaction with a network of other social agents (Mould, Bowers & Ghattas, 2010).In this dynamic network of interconnected activities, the current adaptation of CPbecomes a source of patient safety incident (Mould et al., 2010). Viewing errors as the result of poorly designed systems more so than incompetent or misguided individuals introduces variables that operationalize dynamics seen at process management levels(Forster, 2003, Corrigan, 2005). Workflow management has been cited as potentially important in addressing medical errors and patient safety in many publications like the “To Err Is Human” and “Crossingthe Quality Chasm” (Corrigan, 2005).Such publicationsplaceat the core of a successful systems-based approach to reducing error,the need for a strong patient-safety culture, simplified process design, development of clear work flow of activities and use of patient-centric modeling approaches in adaptation of CPto local settings (Forster, 2003, Audimoolam et al., 2005). A possible approach to improve CPand as a result reduce patient safety incidentsis to use organizational semiotics methods to capture and represent the CP knowledgetodeterminethe underlying semantics of CP and the relationship between the human agents and their patterns of behavior. We use Norm Analysis Method (NAM) to extractsandanalyze patterns of care activities. Based on the information captured during semantic analysis and norm analysis,a process oriented analysis is conducted.Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)is usedto model the CP and a socio-technical method to map informal safety norms in to process models


Intelligent transportation system with minimal data

Intelligent transportation system real time traffic speed prediction with minimal data, As investment in construction and expansion decreases, making better use of urban traffic infrastructure is necessary. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), an assembly of advanced componentsthatcollect, store, process and transmit traffic information for assisting traffic management, has emerged as one way of dealing with this change in approach. An Advanced Traffic Information System(ATIS) is a core component of ITS whichrelieson modern technology (e.g., wireless communication) to disseminate real-time traffic information to drivers. Several ATIS systems have been developed, such as Visteon’s Navmate System (Visteon, 2000), to provide road users with updated information and guide them in selecting the shortest or fastest routes.Historical and real-time information are collected and applied in meeting vehicle routing objectives. Historical information presents the state of the transportation system during previous time periods. Such information can be used for long-term traffic volume prediction needed for transportation infrastructure planning. Real-time information contains the most up-to-date traffic conditions suitable as the basis for short term predictions ranging from a few minutes toa couple of hours in support of operational traffic management. In the absence of this predictive information, drivers are implicitly projecting future conditions based on historical (if they experienced it before) and current traffic information. Therefore, short-term predictions of traffic conditions are needed for traffic management and travelers information systems. Thus, developing an understanding of the movement of traffic in time and space is essential for implementing ITS capabilities to relieve or avoid congestion resulting fromhigh traffic volume,a traffic incident, or other causes. Traffic flow models capable of short-term predictions, up to 30 minutes, of traffic speed are requiredto address this issue. These models must be able to compute results in near-real time for each of the numerous branches in a traffic network. Data to support the models must be collected in near-real time and stored. These requirements imply the use ofmodels requiring little data,from which results can be quickly computed and that are effective in predicting traffic speedup to 30 minutesin the future.Towards this end,data from sensors built into various freeways in Detroit, Michigan andthe surroundingmetropolitan area was obtained from the Michigan Intelligent Transportation Systems Center (MITSC)to support traffic flow model building. The most complete data came from a set of sensors on the south bound interstate highway 75 (I-75)corridor from the interstate highway 96 (I-96)interchange into the city of Detroit. Work focused on a single year of weekday data (November 1, 2005-November 1, 2006) from sensor number 66305 (south bound I-75 southof ClayStreet) located on the south end of the corridor. Multi-level linear regression modeling was used to developequations predicting freeway speed for time ranges from one to thirty minutes into the future.Only the current speed and the speed at one time preceding were required, equivalent to the use of speed and current acceleration alone. Based on the use of the mean relative error and the median error as the primary validation metrics,this approach was found to be effective


Environmental management system

Lean principles adoption in environmental management system (EMS) – A survey on ISO 14001 certified companies, Management practices in the recent days have undergone rapid transformations owing to global changes taking place. The focusof organizations has been on increasing operational efficiency, reducing costs, enhancing quality levels, ensuring steady profits, and meeting customer needs. The efforts of the management in the recent times have been on enhancing productivity through efficient methods of production that emphasizes on the elimination of unnecessary procedures and processes that add to production costs. The efficiency of production processdetermined by the optimal use of resources and adopting an environmentallyfriendly production method. Environment management systems or EMS has been the focal point of managementstrategies in most organizations today.EMS practices within an organization need to be integrated with exiting organizational practices to realize its true potentials. Research studies have revealed that the majority of organizations focusesmore on gaining market competitive advantage, improving customer relations, and increasing profit potentials than adopting work processes that satisfy environmental safety and policy requirements.Lean is one such business model that focuses on delivering quality products to the customer at reduced cost of production. The principles of Lean are founded on understanding of customer needs and demands, eliminating non-value added activities from the production process, involving the workforce in resolving operational issues, define metrics for measuring organizational performance, assist in the decision making process and problem solving(Ross & A.E.C, 2004).ISO 14001 is the world’s most recognized EMS framework that helps organizations both to manage better the impact of their activities on the environment and demonstrate sound environmental management.ISO 14001 is designed to be flexible enough to be applied to any size of organization in both the private and public sectors by Montabon, Meinyk, Stroofe and Calantone (2000).The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 literature review. Section 3 presents the research methodology. Section 4 results. Section 5discussion.Section 6 presents conclusions, recommendation and future research


Cacat Struktural & Non Struktural pada Konstruksi Bangunan Beton

Cacat Struktural & Non Struktural pada Konstruksi Bangunan

Konstruksi bangunan beton adalah bahan yang sangat serbaguna. Itu dapat dilemparkan di tempat dengan atau tanpa penguatan. Itu juga bisa menjadi pracetak atau pratekan untuk mencapai kekuatan yang dibutuhkan. Untuk mencapai kekuatan yang dibutuhkan ada kebutuhan pemahaman yang tepat tentang perilaku dan konstituen yang membuat konstruksi bangunan beton. Semua jenis kelalaian dalam fase apa pun seperti penempatan, desain & pemeliharaan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan dan akhirnya tidak akan dapat menjalankan fungsi yang dimaksudkan. Beberapa faktor yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan beton adalah:
– Pemuatan tidak disengaja
– Reaksi kimia seperti serangan sulfat, reaksi alkali karbonat, reaksi alkali silika dll
Korosi tulangan baja
– Detail konstruksi yang buruk
– Erosi
– Pembekuan dan Pencairan
– Penyusutan
– Penyelesaian
– Api dan cuaca

Cacat dalam Desain Bangunan:

Desain struktur yang tidak memadai berarti beton terkena tegangan lentur dan geser yang lebih besar dari kekuatan desainnya. Semua itu mengarah pada spalling dan cracking beton. Setiap perubahan yang tiba-tiba pada penampang member dapat menyebabkan peningkatan konsentrasi tegangan pada member tersebut yang pada akhirnya akan mengakibatkan beton retak. Defleksi adalah salah satu bagian utama dalam desain struktural. Jika ada masalah dalam pertimbangannya selama desain, yang dapat menyebabkan retaknya beton. Penyediaan drainase dan sambungan ekspansi yang tidak memadai selama desain juga menjadi penyebab kerusakan dan spalling beton.

Cacat Selama Konstruksi:

Cacat selama konstruksi bangunan dapat berkisar dari pencampuran, penempatan dan pengeringan beton yang tidak tepat. Penghapusan penopang & bekisting adalah penyebab lain dari produksi retakan pada beton. Jika tambahan air ditambahkan ke beton untuk meningkatkan kemampuan kerja beton, ini meningkatkan rasio air semen yang mengarah pada pengurangan kekuatan. Penjajaran bekisting yang tidak tepat menyebabkan erosi beton.

Cacat Struktural pada Konstruksi Bangunan:

Cacat struktur pada bangunan dapat dikategorikan sebagai:
– Retakan pada pondasi (substruktur)
– Retakan pada lantai dan lempengan (bangunan atas)
– Retak di Dinding (superstruktur)
Cacat bangunan ini dapat disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor berikut:
– Analisis tanah yang tidak tepat
– Pemilihan situs yang tidak tepat
– Penggunaan bahan yang rusak
– Pekerjaan di bawah standar
Sebagian besar masalah struktural dapat dihindari dengan desain dan perencanaan yang tepat.

Cacat Non Struktural pada Konstruksi Bangunan:

Cacat non struktural meliputi:
– Cacat pada pekerjaan batu bata
– Kelembaban pada bangunan lama
– Cacat pada pekerjaan plester

Dapat disimpulkan bahwa cacat desain dan konstruksi setidaknya dapat menyebabkan keretakan kecil atau spalling yang menyebabkan kerusakan beton dan dapat menjadi sumber kegagalan struktur utama. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan perhatian dan kehati-hatian yang besar dalam perancangan, perincian dan konstruksi struktur beton.


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